Drugs that do not penetrate cell membranes to function

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Despite doxorubicin being commonly used in chemotherapy there still remain significant holes in our knowledge regarding its delivery efficacy and an observed resistance mechanism that is postulated to involve the cell membrane. One possible mechanism is the efflux by protein P-gp, which is found predominantly in cholesterol enriched domains.
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Getting Across the Cell Membrane: An Overview for Small Molecules, Peptides, and Proteins

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Membrane–drug interactions studied using model membrane systems

This site requires JavaScript for some features to work properly or at all. On small screens, JavaScript is essential for navigation. As we will see, getting a drug to its target can be a considerable challenge. Many experimental drugs that are viable in principle and which can be shown to work in vitro are not useful in vivo because of this difficulty. This should tell us something.
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Content Background: How does cocaine pass through a cell membrane?

Recently, much attention has been given to the problem of drug delivery through the cell-membrane in order to treat and manage several diseases. The discovery of cell penetrating peptides CPPs represents a major breakthrough for the transport of large-cargo molecules that may be useful in clinical applications. CPPs are rich in basic amino acids such as arginine and lysine and are able to translocate over membranes and gain access to the cell interior. They can deliver large-cargo molecules, such as oligonucleotides, into cells.
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Dosage forms eg, tablets, capsules, solutions , consisting of the drug plus other ingredients, are formulated to be given by various routes eg, oral, buccal, sublingual, rectal, parenteral, topical, inhalational. Regardless of the route of administration, drugs must be in solution to be absorbed. Thus, solid forms eg, tablets must be able to disintegrate and deaggregate. Unless given IV, a drug must cross several semipermeable cell membranes before it reaches the systemic circulation.
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