Drugs that do not penetrate cell membranes to function
Getting Across the Cell Membrane: An Overview for Small Molecules, Peptides, and Proteins
Membrane–drug interactions studied using model membrane systems
Content Background: How does cocaine pass through a cell membrane?
Recently, much attention has been given to the problem of drug delivery through the cell-membrane in order to treat and manage several diseases. The discovery of cell penetrating peptides CPPs represents a major breakthrough for the transport of large-cargo molecules that may be useful in clinical applications. CPPs are rich in basic amino acids such as arginine and lysine and are able to translocate over membranes and gain access to the cell interior. They can deliver large-cargo molecules, such as oligonucleotides, into cells.
Dosage forms eg, tablets, capsules, solutions , consisting of the drug plus other ingredients, are formulated to be given by various routes eg, oral, buccal, sublingual, rectal, parenteral, topical, inhalational. Regardless of the route of administration, drugs must be in solution to be absorbed. Thus, solid forms eg, tablets must be able to disintegrate and deaggregate. Unless given IV, a drug must cross several semipermeable cell membranes before it reaches the systemic circulation.