At least three detailed scientific studies have attempted to determine the number of licks required to reach the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop. A group of engineering students from Purdue University reported that its licking machine, modeled after a human tongue, took an average of licks to get to the center of a Tootsie Pop. Twenty of the group's volunteers assumed the licking challenge-unassisted by machinery-and averaged licks each to the center. Not to be outdone by a Big Ten rival, a chemical engineering doctorate student from the University of Michigan recorded that his customized licking machine required licks to reach the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop. Go Blue!